The idea of the Nyaya system is based on the third stage of cell development when the Centrosome, acting on the nucleus, is divided into two; and then after some time it ceases to act. It is based on the creative energy of Purushic Ether, corresponding to which we have the south-seeking pole of magnetic energy and the senses of knowledge; and it is for this reason that Nyaya is also called the Aksapada system, for it is "based on the senses of knowledge or Aksa". Again, as the first form of life in Ether is the Atom, it conceives of life in its terms; and finally, it has Dyaus and Prthvi or Heaven and Earth and the two Asvins for its Vedic originals.
God: As the idea of Purusha and Prakrti or God and Nature corresponds to that of the Centrosome and the nucleus respectively, and we find, at this stage of cell development, that the two exist side by side Purusha and Prakrti, in the system of Nyaya, should be conceived as co-eternal. Further, as the Centrosome shows very little activity and soon ceases to act, Purusha or God should be conceived as more or less a passive agent or a mere spectator of the work of Prakrti. Indeed, as God who has no share in the work of creation has no real place in the scheme of the universe, his very idea may be doubted if not denied. Hence, in so far as God is conceived as having a small share in the creation of life, the Nyaya should be theistic; but where he is regarded as a mere spectator of Prakrti, it becomes agnostic in character.
Nature: As the nucleus is more active than the Centrosome at this stage, Prakrti or Nature should be, conceived as more creative than God in this system. But all life is examined in the light of Purushic Ether, the south-seeking magnetic pole, or the senses of knowledge; and corresponding to these we have the Atom, characterised by magnetic energy; and as Ether is characterised by motion, elliptic and in the form of a wave, the atoms should be regarded as creating all life by means of motion, brought together by mere chance, and not by the action of a controlling Mind, as in the Vaisesika.
The Individual Soul: The idea of the individual soul corresponds to that of the supreme Soul; and it should be regarded as only nominally associated with Nature or Prakrti, and more or less a spectator of its work. As in the Vaisesika the soul is characterised by the Mind, so in this system it should be associated with the senses of knowledge. Indeed, all knowledge of the soul should arise out of the senses, and it should conceive of all things in their light.
Knowledge and Action: The individual soul in this system is conceived more or less as a witness of the work of Nature or Prakrti, acting only sometimes when necessary; and so, according to the Nyaya, we should be required to act only when absolutely necessary, and our aim should be to become mere spectators of the drama of life that is being played around. Hence the goal of life should be knowledge and not action knowledge which enables the soul to renounce all association with Prakrti and become a mere spectator of its work.