The Unmanifest is the Heart and the Heart-energy. It is the ultimate source of life which, as already pointed out, may be regarded from three points of view; Purushic, both Purushic and Prakrtic, and Prakrtic. Accordingly, Purusha; Prakrti; and Heart and Heart-energy, conceived as Consciousness (I or one-ness or Ahankara), Atman or super-Mind may be regarded as unmanifest.
Atman: As already explained, Atman represents Heart-energy, and is said to abide in the heart of a living being, even as the Supreme Purusha abides in the Heart of the Universe. It belongs to the unmanifest; and inasmuch as the Supreme Unmanifest may be conceived as Purusha, or Prakrti, or the union together of both, so is Atman, when regarded from different points of view. It is sometimes conceived as purely Purushic and identified with the Supreme, sometimes it is regarded as partaking of the characteristics of both the male and the female energy and sometimes it is spoken of as purely material, Bhutatman, composed of the elements.
Atman Transformed into Buddhi: In the process of creation, the higher energy is transformed into the lower. Accordingly, Atman gives rise to Buddhi or Intelligence. Indeed, Buddhi (energy of the Head) is the first manifest form of Atman, and the two are often identified.
Atman and Prana or Breath: Atman is sometimes identified with Breath or Prana. As will be shown in the following pages, Breath or Air in living beings is connected with both the heart and head energy. The heart functions by means of breath; and so is Prana or Breath identified with Atman or Soul dwelling in the heart.
Buddhi: Buddhi, or the energy of the Head, is the first highest manifest energy of life transformed out of the Heart, and is symbolized by the Sun. Its chief quality is serenity, certainty, peace and it has all the characteristics of the Sun, heat (Tapas), light, and creative power. As the first expression of the modification or transformation of the Heart-energy, it is subject to modification or Gunas.
Mind: Buddhi is transformed into Mind and as soon as Mind comes into existence, it is transformed into Ether, the chief of the elements. This corresponds to the transformation of electric into magnetic current, or the union of lightning with thunder or sound.
Mind is personified by the Moon, and partakes of all its characteristics. It owes its origin to Buddhi, as the Moon to the Sun; it is changing like the Moon; it is in direct contact with the elements even as the Moon is in the actual creation of life its energy is electric like that of the Moon, and it is transformed into magnetic energy even as the Moon creates the element Ether.
Sun and Moon: Buddhi and Mind: Gold and Silver: It has already been pointed out that Gold is a symbol of the Sun; similarly, Silver is a symbol of the Moon. As the energy of the Sun is Heat, Gold of all metals is most sensitive to heat; and as the energy of the Moon is electric, Silver of all metals is most sensitive to electricity, being its best conductor. Again, gold is found to be pure and incorruptible, like the Sun; but, as soon as Mind (Moon) is created it is transformed into Ether that is, it is impossible to conceive of Mind in a perfectly pure state; and the same is the case with the metal silver, which can never be kept in a perfectly pure condition.
Difference between Atman and Buddhi: The difference between Atman and Buddhi corresponds to that between the unmanifest and the manifest, between the Heart and the Head. The special characteristic of Atman Consciousness and as Buddhi is a manifest form of Atman, it has the characteristic of Atman, viz., Consciousness, as well as its own, viz., Intelligence or Discrimination, or Certainty or Peace.
As Buddhi is the manifest form of Atman, for practical purposes the two are identified and they live together in a state of union.
Atman is not the result of any modification: hence it is free from Gunas or modifications but Buddhi is the result of modification of Atman: accordingly, Buddhi is subject to Gunas. But, inasmuch as Atman and Buddhi are, for practical purposes, identified, Atman is also spoken of as Saguna (or possessed of Gunas), though he is really Nir-guna (or free from Gunas) In this respect he is like the Supreme Purusha, both free from and subject to Maya, Gunas, and Action, and for the same reasons. Buddhi, however, can be spoken of only as Saguna (or possessed of Gunas), and not as Nir-guna (or devoid of Gunas).
As the Atman partakes of the character of the Supreme Purusha, he is spoken of as a mere witness or spectator, while Buddhi is regarded as the real actor and creator of life. The idea of Atman as a mere witness or spectator is based on the analogy of Prakrti alone being the actor and creator, and the Supreme Purusha a witness and spectator only.
Difference between Buddhi and Mind: The difference between Buddhi and Mind is that, when Buddhi desires anything, it is called the Mind. Further, it is said that "from the Unmanifest is the Soul, from Soul Buddhi, and from Buddhi Mind" and again, that "when Buddhi lives in the Mind, it is nothing but the Mind".
The Mind is, therefore, but a modification or transformation of Buddhi; it possesses all the characteristics of Buddhi, and has a special one of its own, that is, raising a doubt or asking a question. Mind, coming into contact with the objects of the senses, raises a doubt with regard to them, and asks the question, What, why, whence, or how, is this? It is then the function of Buddhi to answer the question and thereby bring about certainty of knowledge and calmness of Mind.
Buddhi is symbolized by the Sun, and Mind by the Moon; Buddhi by Heat, Mind by Electricity; Buddhi by Gold, and Mind by Silver; and the difference between them can best be understood in the light of the difference between the Sun and Moon, Heat and Electricity, and Gold and Silver. This idea has already been explained.
Creation of the Five Elements: It has already been pointed out that, as soon as the Mind is created, Ether is produced. Ether is then modified into Air; Air into Fire; Fire into Water; and Water into Earth; and thus are the five elements created by transformation of one energy into another.
Properties of the Five Elements: Each of these elements has its properties; and inasmuch as creation is the result of transformation of a higher energy into one lower in the scale, the latter has all the properties of the former.
Thus, the special property of Ether is Sound; of Air is Touch; of Fire Form; of Water Taste; and of "Earth" Smell. These properties are called "subtle" elements, whereas the elements themselves are called "gross" elements.
Thus, when Ether is transformed into Air, Air has not only its own special property, viz., Touch, but Sound also. Similarly, Fire has its own property Form, as well as the properties of Air, viz., Touch and Sound; and Water has its own property, Taste, as well as the preceding ones; and "Earth" has all of them Smell, Taste, Form, Touch, and Sound.
Gross and Subtle Elements: There are two schools of thought in connection with the origin of the "gross" and "subtle" elements or the elements and their properties. One school holds that the Mind is transformed into Ether, and then arises the property of Ether, viz., Sound. Then Ether is transformed into Air, and then arises the property of Air, viz., Touch; and so on to "Earth". According to the other school, Mind is transformed first into Sound, the property of Ether, and then Sound is transformed into Ether; then Ether is transformed into Touch, the property of Air, and Touch is transformed into Air; and so on to the element "Earth". The second school of thought would appear to be more scientific; for, in connection with the propagation of an electric current (of the Heart as well as of the Mind), it has been pointed out that it is accompanied by Sound, and then it describes an elliptical path, associated with Ether. Accordingly, the property or "subtle" element precedes the "gross" element in the order of creation; and this applies not only to Ether but to all the elements, on the analogy that what is true in one case must be true in all.
Five Senses of Knowledge and Five of Action: Corresponding to the five elements ("subtle" and "gross"), there are five senses of Knowledge and five of Action. The five senses of Knowledge are the Ears, Skin, Eyes, Tongue and Nose; and the five senses of Action are the Feet (or legs), Hands (or arms), Tongue (as an instrument of speech), the Organ of procreation, and the Organ of excretion.
Relation of Elements and Senses: The relation of the elements and the corresponding senses may be expressed as follows:
|Senses of Knowledge||Ears||Skin||Eyes||Tongue||Nose|
|Senses of Action||Feet||Hands||Tongue||Organ of creation||Organ of excretion|
Entities of Life: Twenty four Principles:
Thus, we have the following entities of life:
The unmanifest is Purusha, Prakrti, or both.
The Manifest consists of the following:
(1) Buddhi; (2) Mind; (3-7) the five "subtle" elements (8-12) the five "gross" elements; (13-17) the five senses of Knowledge; and (18-22) the five senses of Action.
Thus, the unmanifest (Purusha and Prakrti) and the manifest make up twenty four entities.
Twenty five Principles: Twenty six Principles: These twenty four principles are sometimes increased to twenty five, and sometimes to twenty six for when they are considered in relation to human beings, the addition of Atman (individual soul) increases the number to twenty five; and when the character of the individual soul is distinguished into Purushic and Prakrtic (like that of the Supreme Soul), and a distinction is made between the twofold character of the Jivatman or individual soul into Bhutatman (or elemental soul) and the Higher Self, the number is increased to twenty six.
Variety of Twenty four Principles: It has already been remarked that, according to one system of thought (Sankhya) the idea of the Supreme Purusha has been eliminated. As in this case the number of entities would be reduced to twenty-three, the total is made up by the addition of Ahankara or Egoism, arising out of Buddhi as a new modification of it. This Ahankara must be distinguished from Consciousness (Ahankara or I-ness), the special characteristic of the Supreme and individual Soul or Heart energy, even as super- mind (the attribute of the Heart) must be distinguished from the ordinary Mind.
Arrangement of Various Entities: These ideas, regarding the fundamental principles of life-manifestation, may now be arranged, for purposes of comparison, as follows, for the various systems of Hindu philosophy and religion are based on them:
|Twenty-Four (Two varieties)||Twenty-Five||Twenty-Six|
|5 Subtle Elements||5 Subtle Elements||5 Subtle Elements||5 Subtle Elements|
|5 Gross Elements||5 Gross Elements||5 Gross Elements||5 Gross Elements|
|5 Senses of Knowledge||5 Senses of Knowledge||5 Senses of Knowledge||5 Senses of Knowledge|
|5 Senses of Action||5 Senses of Action||5 Senses of Action||5 Senses of Action|
Simultaneous Creation of Ten Senses, Five of Knowledge and Five of Action: In this connection it is necessary to bear in mind that the senses are said to have been created simultaneously from and with the Mind. This is important to remember, and leads to the following inferences:
(a) that the Mind is always associated with the senses; and
(b) that Ether, into which the Mind is transformed, has a two-fold character, one related to the five senses of knowledge and the other to the five senses of action; or, if knowledge be regarded as Purushic and Action Prakrtic, Ether has a Purushic and a Prakrtic aspect. It will be remembered that the electromagnetic current of life breaks into positive and negative simultaneously at the point of Ether.
Creation and Dissolution: As creation is a process of transformation from a higher into a lower energy, the reverse of this, that is, a transformation from a lower into a higher energy is destruction. Thus, when life is made manifest, the Heart-energy is transformed into Buddhi, Buddhi into Mind, Mind into Ether, Ether into Air, Air into Fire, Fire into Water, and Water into "Earth" When the time comes for the dissolution of life, "Earth" is transformed into Water, Water into Fire, Fire into Air, Air into Ether, Ether into Mind, Mind into Buddhi, and Buddhi into the energy of the Heart, reversing the process of the creation of life.
Dwelling Place of the Departed: It has already been explained that, according to the ancient Hindus, manifest life was characterised by electromagnetic energy; and this energy is characterised by attraction and repulsion. Again, the attraction and repulsion of magnetic energy is limited, for the most part, to objects of like character.
Now when destruction takes place, life is dissolved into its component energies from "Earth" to the energy of the Heart. On the principle of attraction and repulsion, each energy set free is attracted to its unlike, that is, to the same energy with an opposite "polarity" the disintegrated elements to the corresponding integrated elements; disintegrated Mind to integrated Mind; disintegrated Buddhi to integrated Buddhi; and disintegrated Heart to integrated Heart.
Now, it has been said that the Moon symbolizes the Mind; the Sun Buddhi; and the Supreme unmanifest Purusha the energy of the Heart. Accordingly, when the body is dissolved, the disintegrated elements go to the corresponding integrated elements; the disintegrated Mind to the Moon; disintegrated Buddhi to the Sun; the Atman or Heart-energy to the Supreme Eternal.
Thus, if the individual being, whose body is dissolved, is absorbed in the thoughts of the elements at the time of his death, that is, if he is at the element-stage of life attractions, he goes to the elements or Bhutas, and becomes a spirit or a ghost. Similarly, if he is at the Mind-stage, he goes to the Moon; if he is at the Buddhi-stage, he goes to the Sun; and if he is at the Heart-stage, he goes to the Supreme.