Narach Philosophy

THE OBJECTS TO BE KNOWN (PART-2)


The five remaining objects to be known are faults, state after death, fruit of action, pain, and emancipation of the soul; and so we must understand the character of faults, state after death, the fruit of action, pain, and emancipation of the soul.

Faults: Faults may be classified under three heads, with reference to the different meanings of love, hate, and delusion. But, so far as the character of a large number of persons, like an army, is concerned, they may be of many kinds; and in the case of erroneous reasoning, they refer to lapses of reason. Of these delusion is the worst, because in the case of one who is not deluded, the rest do not arise.

State after death: If we believe that the soul is eternal, it means that we believe that there is a future life. It is not manifest; but there is no inconsistency in it, because what is manifest arises from what is unmanifest; and things arise by means of an uninterrupted succession of events.

The fruit of action: When there is no fruit of the actions of a man, it is said that Isvara or God is the cause of this failure. But we cannot say so, for there is no fruit or result in the absence of a man's actions; and since it is caused by his actions, there is no reason for any reference to God.

When people are unable to find the cause of a substance, they sometimes say that it has no cause. But that which appears to have no cause itself arises from something that has a cause; and, the expressions "having a cause" and "having no cause" should be understood in their relative sense, and there is no necessary contradiction between them.

We cannot say that there is nothing eternal in the world, because, so far as we are aware, there is a regular order of things, which continues without end. However, we cannot say that all things are eternal, because we see that there is a cause of their birth and death. But when we understand the origin of things, we find that the idea of eternity is there too. Nevertheless, we cannot prove it, because all things that we see in the world are subject to change.

Even though things are different from one another, they have still a number of characteristics derived from a common source.

It is necessary for the intellect to devote itself to a single purpose in order to understand its cause.

As the result of some actions arises immediately, and of others after a time, it is possible to have a doubt in regard to the nature of result. There are some who believe that there can be no real result of an action after a lapse of time, because the cause itself has been destroyed. But the result of an action, before it has appeared, may be said to be like the fruit of a tree before it has appeared; and it cannot be said to be either existent, or non-existent, or existent-non- existent. What, however, our intellect can prove is that it is non-existent; but we have to understand the sense in which the term is used. Nor is there any inconsistency in comparing the result of an action with the fruit of a tree, for the term "fruit" can refer to son, cattle, wife, and a number of other things.

Pain: We cannot say that the result of birth is unmixed pain, because there is joy too in its midst.

But there seems to be no end to pain in the world, so much so that it seems that it is not possible to attain to joy or emancipation from the bondage of life. But this is a mistaken view, and is not supported by the Vedas, only we have to interpret their text aright.

Emancipation from bondage: Final joy or emancipation from the bondage of life is like the absence of pain of one who is in deep sleep and sees no dreams; and such a one is not inclined to associate himself with things again; for actions are caused by desire or deliberate intention; and so long as they last, so will pain.

We can now make a rapid survey of ten more "categories", motive, doubt, admitted truth and its instances, different parts of an argument, process of reasoning, art of drawing conclusions, discussion, disputation, and carping criticism.

Motive: Motive is associated with ahankara, which acts; and when we understand that action gives rise to faults, ahankara ceases to act. The cause of faults is attraction for the attributes of objects, as well as the objects of desire themselves; and the cause of this attraction is an erroneous conception of all things, taken as a whole as well as in parts.

Doubt: Doubt arises because of conflict between knowledge and ignorance, and it comes to an end when we understand the cause of things. Similarly, if there be no activity, there can be no doubt.

Admitted truth and its instances: The idea of admitted truth and its instances can easily be illustrated.

Different parts of an argument, process of reasoning and the art of drawing conclusions: All these are connected together, and their idea can easily be illustrated.

Discussion: The idea of discussion can also be easily illustrated.

Disputation and carping criticism: Disputation and carping criticism are like a fence made of branches of thorn, designed to protect the growth of a seed; and they are meant for the purpose of preserving our understanding of reality.

The next three "categories" are fallacies, quibbles, and the real nature of a thing; and it is necessary to understand them.

Fallacies, quibbles and the real nature of a thing: Fallacies and quibbles arise, from similarities; and so also the idea of the real nature of a thing. These similarities are of twenty-four kinds; and they should be properly understood.

The last "category" refers to inability to carry on an argument because of impossibility of agreement on the first principles; and we have to understand what that means.

Inability to carry on an argument for want of agreement on the first principles: There are twenty four situations of unfitness to carry on an argument because of impossibility of agreement on the first principles and it is necessary to understand them.