The test of the correctness of the distribution of letters along their elliptical paths would be; inasmuch as every letter of the Sanskrt alphabet has a number of meanings, they should have a certain connection with the energies of life associated with the places occupied by the letters along their elliptical paths; and from this it follows that the letters composing a Vedic or otherwise sacred ancient name, should indicate the significance attaching to that name by reference to the places they occupy. It should provide a reasonable explanation of the Sandhi rules and the rules of Sanskrit Grammar.
Rules of Grammar: It would obviously be impossible, within the scope of this volume, to examine even the most important rules of Sanskrt grammar in this light; but a consideration of a few of them will show that they are based on a well reasoned scheme of thought, and with reference, to the system outlined in these pages.
Guna Rules: One of the most important rules of Sanskrt grammar relates to what is called "Guna" changes. This term is used in philosophy also where it signifies attributes or qualities, of which three are distinguished, viz. Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. In grammar, however, the idea of Guna is modification or change that takes place in vowels under certain conditions. According to this, the Guna of the vowel I, short or long, is E; of U, short or long, O; of R, short or long, Ar. The letter "a" is regarded as already a Guna letter and so is without a Guna substitute; and it is the Guna of the vowel R.
Vrddhi Rules: The meaning of the word "Vrddhi" is "increase"; and the Vrddhi change of a vowel is obtained by increasing or elongating its Guna change. Thus, the Vrddhi of I, short or long, is Ai; of U short or long, Au; of R; short or long, Ar; and of A, A.
Idea of Guna: The idea of Guna has already been explained, and the Guna changes of vowels have been indicated by means of a diagram.
Explanation of Guna Changes: It will be seen from the figure that Guna is intended to indicate a change that takes place in an energy composing the nucleus of a cell. It has been observed that each letter of the Sanskrt alphabet represents an energy of the cell, and that the vowels indicate energies of the nucleus and consonants of the cytoplasm. Accordingly the vowel a represents Buddhi; I Mind; U Purushic Ether; R Prakrtic Ether; Lr Air; E Fire; and O Water.
Now when it is said that the vowel a has no Guna or that it is a Guna substitute in itself, the idea would be that Buddhi, as the first manifestation of the Heart, is not subject to any change; but, if any change takes place in it, it is in itself the cause and effect of that change.
Further, it is said that the Guna of R is A. This would imply that whenever a modification or change takes place in Buddhi-energy or Heat (Sun-energy), it is related to the region of Prakrtic Ether.
Guna Changes and the Cell: It has been said that Guna is intended to indicate changes that take place in the nucleus of a cell in the course of its development. If this be correct, we should be able to explain Guna rules in the light of these changes of the nucleus.
Explanation of Guna Rules: "If a (short or long) is followed by I, U, R (short or long), the corresponding Guna letter is substituted for both".
According to our theory a represents Buddhi, Sun-energy or Heat; I Mind, Moon energy or Electricity; U Purushic Ether, and all that appertains to it; and R Prakrtic Ether and all that is related to it. This rule would thus be interpreted as follows:
- When Heat (A) acts upon (is followed by) electric energy and all that appertains to it (I), the resultant energy assumes a new form and is exposed to sight (E, Fire-class, having form or sight for its attribute).
- When Heat (A) acts upon Purushic Ether (U) and all that is connected with it (certain kinds of metals, etc.), the result is a liquid (O, Water).
- When Heat (A) acts upon Prakrtic Ether and its correlated forms (s), the result is a magnetic field or the completion of the current of Heart-energy in Ether (Ar).
Sometimes a fourth Guna change is also spoken of, in connection with the vowel Lr. This signifies that when Heat (A) is followed by Air and all that is associated with it (Lr), the result is the formation of Air or gas, which is characterised by heat (Ar).
It will be noticed that the action of Heat, interpreted in this way, is fourfold: it hardens a substance into a new form (E); or liquefies (0); or induces an electromagnetic field (Ar); or transforms a substance into Air or gas (Al) Further, it will be noticed that all Guna changes take place under the action of Heat (A); and it will be found on examination that the presence of Heat or change of temperature is necessary in all nuclear development.
Further, we see that of the two categories, Purushic and Prakrtic, I, Mind, is Prakrtic; U (Purushic Ether) is Purushic; while R (Prakrtic Ether) may be said to be partly Purushic and partly Prakrtic (for Ether is Purushic, but this aspect of it is Prakrtic) Again, E (Fire) is Purushic; 0 (Water) Prakrtic; and Ar may be said to be both Purushic and Prakrtic (for A, Buddhi is Purushic, and R, belonging to the Mind-class of consonants in the diagram of the alphabet, may be said to be Prakrtic). Accordingly a Guna change means a transformation of an energy belonging to one category into an energy of another category; and this takes place under the action of Heat (A).
Other Rules regarding Vowels: If our theory can explain Guna rules in the light of cell-development, it should explain other rules regarding vowels also in the same manner. We might consider a few in this connection.
- "In Sanskrt two vowels cannot come together without coalescing". This implies that in the course of cell-development, different energies of the nucleus come together and unite.
- "When I, U, R, Lr, short or long, are followed by a dissimilar vowel, Y, V, R, L, respectively are substituted for them". This rule indicates how certain vowels are changed into correlated consonants; in other words how the nuclear substance is transformed into the cytoplasm or cell-body, under certain conditions viz. The union of some dissimilar energies; and we have seen that this is so in the actual development of the cell.
Gunas in Grammar and Philosophy and Religion: We have seen how Guna changes explain the working of the nucleus of the cell; and as the ideas of science have been applied by the ancients to philosophy and religion, their conception of Guna, as has already been explained, is the same. The three Gunas of grammar are identical with Sattva, Rajas and Tamas; and based on them we have the three chief systems of Hindu philosophy, Vedanta, Yoga and Sankhya; and the three great systems of religion, connected with Vishnu or Krshna, Siva, and Brahma (associated in after years with the name of Buddha).
Phonetic Rules: It is possible to hold that some of the rules of grammar in connection with both vowels and consonants are phonetic, as for instance, the change of the vowels I, U, R, and Lr into their correlated consonants. But if they can explain the working of the cell and at the same time satisfy the laws of phonetics, it can only be regarded as the result of a wonderful harmony of conception, welding together science and philosophy and language into one great whole. But there are a number of Sandhi rules relating to both vowels and consonants, which cannot be so easily explained; as for instance, the change of the letters S and R into a Visarga, and vice versa; the transformation of a Visarga into a vowel; or the change of the letter S into S or S. But before we can explain these changes, it is necessary to understand the different meanings attaching to the letters of the Sanskrt alphabet in the light of the places they occupy, as pictures of ideas and images of different energies of life. But, as the significance of a place depends on its number along its elliptical path, we have to understand the ideas associated with numbers before we can interpret the meanings of the letters of the alphabet.
Significance of Numbers: The significance of numbers is as follows:
- One: This number refers to the first manifest or conceivable energy of life. According as we regard the Heart, Buddhi, Mind, or Ether as the first creative energy in the different systems of thought, the number will mean each or all of them. It will also stand for Purusha or Prakrti, according as we regard the one or the other as first. It may also stand for the first element from the bottom, "Earth".
- Two: Similarly, the number two will represent ideas connected with the energy or energies second in order, Purusha and Prakrti in union; Buddhi, Mind, Purushic Ether, Prakrtic Ether (being the second in order of manifestation, taking Heart-energy, Buddhi, Mind or Purushic Ether as first); the second stage in the development of life; Water, the second element from the bottom.
- Three: Mind, Purushic Ether, Prakrtic Ether, Air (being the third in order of creation); the three Gunas; the third stage in the manifestation of life; Fire, the third element from the bottom.
- Four: The fourth stage in the development of life (Prakrtic Ether); the fourth energy in the manifestation of life; Ether, Air, Fire, or Water; Air, the fourth element from the bottom.
- Fifth: The fifth energy in the manifestation of life, Air; the five elements; Ether, the fifth element from the bottom; five senses of Knowledge; five senses of Action.
- Sixth: The sixth energy in order of manifestation, Fire; Mind, the sixth energy from the bottom, as consisting, of itself and the five elements.
- Seventh: The seventh energy in order of manifestation, Water; Buddhi, the seventh energy from the bottom.
- Eight: The eighth energy in order of manifestation, the element "Earth"; Heart-energy, Consciousness, Ahankara, or Atman, the eighth energy from the bottom.
- Nine: The whole manifest universe, consisting of the seven divisions of life from Buddhi to the element "Earth", and the two currents, Purushic and Prakrtic, by means of which it acts.
- Ten: The ten senses, five of Knowledge and five of Action the cycle of Ether or magnetic energy, rising in Purushic Ether and completed in Prakrtic Ether, each being represented by the number five; the theory of life or the Sankhya system, related to the character of Ether.
- Eleven: Mind, being the energy after the ten senses which are created out of it the Mind or electric current of life, rising in the Mind (number six) and completed in Ether (number five); hence a cycle of the Mind Yoga system of philosophy; relation of Yoga (Mind, number 6) to Sankhya (Ether, number 5).
- Twelve: Buddhi, the energy after Mind; the Sun; Buddhi or Heart-current, rising in Buddhi (Sun, No. 7) and completed in Ether (No. 5); hence, the cycle of Time or the year.
- Thirteen: The energy after Buddhi; Heart-energy, Ahankara or I-ness, Atman Supreme Purusha of the Heart Prakrti, out of which Buddhi is created.
- Fourteen: This number is made up often and four, and would refer to the ideas represented by them.
- Fifteen: Ten and five, referring to the ideas of these numbers, viz., the five elements and the ten senses.
- Sixteen: Ten and six, referring to the ideas connected with them, vis., Mind in relation to the ten senses.
- Seventeen: Ten and seven, referring to Buddhi in connection with Ether or the ten senses.
- Eighteen: Ten and eight, referring to the ideas of these numbers, viz. Heart- energy made manifest in Ether or the ten senses. It also refers to the union of 7, 6, and 5, and the systems of thought associated with them.
- Twenty: Five elements, their five properties, and the ten senses of Knowledge and Action.
- Twenty-One: Mind, after the twenty referred to above. This number is often spoken of as thrice seven, and would refer to the ideas conveyed by these numbers, viz. Buddhi and the three Gunas. It is also made up of 8, 7, and 6, and would refer to the ideas and systems of thought associated with these numbers.
- Twenty-Four: Twenty-four energies of life and the system of thought (Sankhya) associated with them.
- Twenty-Five: Twenty-five energies of life, and the Yoga system of thought associated with them.
- Twenty-Six: Twenty-six energies of life, and the Vedanta system of thought associated with them.
- Twenty-Seven: This number is thrice nine, and would refer to the ideas associated with these numbers, viz.; the whole manifest life with its two, Purushic and Prakrtic, currents, in relation to the three Gunas. This number is also associated with the Moon (sometimes also with the Sun), in connection with the twenty seven Naksatras or asterisms through which the Moon (and also the Sun) is said to pass.
- Thirty-Three: This refers to the thirty-three energies of life in the manifest universe; Buddhi consisting of seven, Mind six, Purushic and Prakrtic Ether five each, Air four, Fire three, Water two, and "Earth" one only.
- Eighty-Four: This is seven times twelve, and represents the cycle (12) of Buddhi (7), or the viviparous, born of Buddhi as their parent source.
- One Hundred: This is nine times twelve, and represents the Eight cycle (12) of the universe (9), consisting of seven manifest energies and the Purushic and Prakrtic currents of life.
- Hundred thousand, Lac: These represent an indefinitely large number.