The method of writing in Sanskrt, as in most of the languages of its stock, is from left to Right. This might at first sight appear to be an accident, for different languages have different ways, and they write from right to left in Arabic and from top to bottom in the Chinese. But when we consider the structure of Sanskrt as a whole, what might appear to be meaningless at first, comes to bear a significance of its own, when we remember that it is a deliberate creation of the genius of man.
We have seen that, according to the ancient system of thought, the place of Purusha is to the Right and of Prakrti to the left; hence, the movement from left to Right is from Prakrti to Purusha, and that is the significance of the method of writing in Sanskrt.
All language expresses the thoughts and things of manifest life, and Speech arises out of the Fire of our being, when the Heart beats warm, when Buddhi desires, the Mind thinks, and the senses dwell on the objects of the senses. All knowledge is from the Known to the Unknown; and that which is altogether inconceivable either by comparison or contrast, can have no name and is outside the scope of thought and language. The ancients, accordingly, combined the ideas of Name and Form as inseparable, and both are related to Agni or Fire as their presiding deity.
Now the origin of all life is Purushic energy, but it develops into Prakrtic form; and it is from its form that we get an idea of its essence. In other words all creation is from within without, while all knowledge from without within; and if Sanskrt was specially intended to give expression to a great science and philosophy of life, its method of writing could only be from left to Right, indicating that all knowledge and its expression, language, leads from the Known to the Unknown, or from Prakrti to Purusha.
Numbers: Singular, Dual, Plural: In Sanskrt we get not only the singular and plural, as in other languages, but invariably the dual too. The Greek, Latin, and Arabic have the dual also, but not in the same systematic manner as Sanskrt, where every singular noun must pass through the dual to the plural form.
The idea of the singular is one, of the dual two, and of plural many. Now, according to the ancient Hindu system of thought, the whole universe multiplies or becomes many by means of the union of Purusha and Prakrti. Whether we regard the first creative energy of life to be Purusha (masculine) or Prakrti (feminine), there is always a union of the two (dual) before the one (singular) becomes many (plural). Thus we see the necessity of the dual form in every case of the increase of a noun (a name of a person or a thing) from singular to plural.
Three Genders: In all languages we get three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter; but the idea of gender in Sanskrt appears to be that certain objects partake of the Purusha more than Prakrti, while others have more of Prakrti than Purusha; but with regard to some it is difficult to say whether they partake of the one more than the other. Accordingly the first are masculine; the second feminine; and the third, about whom there is a doubt (or a certainty that they partake equally of Purusha and Prakrti), are conceived as neuter. From this it follows that the neuter in Sanskrt are not inanimate objects, as in other languages. For instance, Brahman, the Supreme Creator, is assigned to the neuter gender; and the reason is that he represents Ether, and so partakes equally of Purusha and Prakrti. Again, Bahu, arm, which in other languages would be regarded as belonging to the neuter gender, is masculine in Sanskrt; the reason being that Action, which the arm symbolizes, is conceived as Purushic more than Prakrtic. Similarly, Kartri, doer, is both masculine and neuter, because, while in some cases we may be sure that the actor is Purushic (that is, Action is Purushic), in others we shall have to regard it equally Purushic and Prakrtic.
Seven Cases: There are seven cases in Sanskrt; Nominative, Accusative, Instrumental, Dative, Ablative, Genitive, and Locative. The eighth, Vocative, is regarded as only a peculiar aspect of the Nominative.
The idea of the seven cases follows that of the seven manifest energies of life, from Buddhi to "Earth". The eighth or the Vocative, corresponds to the energy of the Heart, and is related to the Nominative as the Heart is to Buddhi; and the connection between the two has already been explained.
Verbs: Two kinds of Roots: There are two kinds of roots in Sanskrt, Atmane-pada, and Parasmai-pada. Now all verbs and their roots relate to the functions of the senses, which refer, logically, either to self or not-self, exhausting thereby the whole range of thought and action. Corresponding to this we have two kinds of roots in Sanskrt, relating to self (or Atmane-pade) and not-self (that is, others or Parasmai-pada).
Ten Tenses and Moods: Ten conjugations of roots: As has already been pointed out, verbs and their roots relate to the functions of the senses of knowledge and action; and there are ten such senses, five of knowledge and five of action. The ten tenses and their conjugations correspond, therefore, to the ten senses.
It is possible to multiply instances of this kind; and, at the same time, there would be some which cannot be so easily explained; but when we take them all together, as part of one great system of thought, however unconnected they might appear to be when considered apart, it becomes difficult to resist the conclusion that the structure of the Sanskrt language follows some definite scheme and arrangement of thought. This conclusion gathers yet further strength when we examine some more Sandhi rules.
Grammatical Rules and Cell Development: It has been observed that the form of the Sanskrt language follows the idea of the Cell; and in this connection we have shown how certain vowel rules are intended to explain and illustrate the process of cell-development. It will be interesting to examine this idea further still.
Consonants and Cell Development: It has been pointed out that the consonants represent the cytoplasm; and a change in the cytoplasm is preceded by a change in the nucleus, represented by the vowels of the alphabet. Let us examine a few rules relating to consonants. A conjunct consonant, having no vowel after it, is reduced to a simple one; that is, the first consonant alone is retained and the others dropped.
The cytoplasm (consonants) functions only when the nucleus (vowels) is active. When a conjunct consonant has no vowel after it, it means that the last consonant (or consonants) is inactive; hence it is dropped, for we are concerned only with the cell in action, representing speech. The first consonant is retained, for that has a vowel attached; hence it is active. From this it follows that when two or more energies of the cytoplasm (consonants) come together by themselves, without being accompanied by energy of the nucleus (vowels), they cannot function at all; and only those that are attached to the energy of the nucleus can act. When consonants of the dental class are combined with those of the palatal or the lingual class, the latter are substituted for the former.
The Dental class (T-class), according to our system of thought, relates to Prakrtic Ether; while the Palatal (C-class) belongs to the Mind, and the Lingual (T-class) to Purushic Ether. The change of the Dental class into the Palatal or Lingual refers to the change of Prakrtic Ether (north-seeking magnetic energy) into Mind (electric energy) or Purushic Ether (south seeking magnetic energy). According to this rule S may be changed into S or S. Now we have seen that the letter S (No. 13 in our diagram) represents Heart energy; and the letter:
- Buddhi (placed in the Buddhi-region);
- Mind (belonging to the Palatal or Mind-class); and
- Ether (occupying place No. 5); i and the letter Sh
- Buddhi (placed in the Buddhi-region);
- Mind (occupying place No. 6); and
- Purushic Ether (belonging to the Lingual class)
The change of S into S or S signifies, therefore, that Heart-energy may be transformed into Buddhi, Mind, or Ether. In other words, super-electric energy may be transformed into heat, electricity, or magnetic energy. We find that this is true to actual facts of life, and fits in with the theory already explained.
Let us now consider Anusvara and Visarga in the light of cell-development.
Anusvara: The following are the chief rules regarding Anusvara:
- In the body of a word or grammatical form, N is changed into an Anusvara when followed by S, S, S, or H.
- M at the end of a word or particle is changed into an Anusvara when followed by S, S, S, R, or H.
An Anusvara, as has been pointed out, is a sign represented; thus, it is identical in form to the action of the centrosomes on the chromosomes; and the two form themselves into this sign at two places, the two polar ends. In grammar we see that there are two letters (N and M) which change into an Anusvara, corresponding to the two places where the centrosomes and chromosomes meet in this form. Further, we notice that both the letters N and M which are transformed into an Anusvara are situated in Purushic Ether in our diagram of the alphabet; and Purushic Ether is characterised by magnetic energy. Corresponding to this, we see that the two places where the centrosomes and chromosomes meet in the form of an Anusvara are polar or magnetic in character.
Again, the form of an Anusvara in the cell is seen just before the mother-cell separates into two; and as the development of the cell is conceived to be the result of the union of Purusha and Prakrti, the sign of an Anusvara, representing the action of the centrosomes on the chromosomes, expresses the consummation of this union. It symbolizes, therefore, the union of Purusha and Prakrti in the creation of life. As the letters N and M are at the end of Purushic Ether in our diagram, the idea of an Anusvara indicates that the union of Purusha and Prakrti always takes place in Purushic Ether characterised by elliptical motion or comparative rest. Again, the association of the letter S, S, S, R, H, in connection with an Anusvara, indicates that the creative union of Purusha and Prakrti takes place when Purushic Ether (N or M) is associated with:
- Buddhi or Mind (S, S, R);
- Heart-energy or Prakrtic Ether (S, Dental class); and
- Any energy which may be regarded as the ultimate creative energy of life, viz. Purusha, Prakrti, Heart-energy, Buddhi, Mind, or Ether (H).
Thus we see that the conditions of creation are that Purushic Ether should unite with Heart-energy, Buddhi, Mind, or Prakrtic Ether. In this connection it will be of interest to note that all theories of Hindus in regard to creation are based on one or the other condition of life-manifestation as here explained and in the actual working of the cell this implies that a creative development takes place when a magnetic energy is united with super-electric energy (Heart), heat (Buddhi), electric energy (Mind), or magnetic energy (Prakrtic Ether) It will be interesting to investigate if this is true to actual facts of cell development.
Visarga: Purushic Energy: The following are the chief rules regarding Visarga:
- At the end of a word, S, whether followed by any letter or not, is changed into a Visarga.
- At the end of a word, R, followed by a hard consonant or by nothing, is changed into a Visarga.
It has been observed that the form of Visarga corresponds to centrosomes in a cell, thus, :; and the latter are found in two places, sometimes near the nucleus and sometimes in the cytoplasm. From this we may conclude that the two places of the centrosomes are represented by the letters S and R, which are transformed into a Visarga.
Now we have seen that the letter S represents:
- Heart-energy (corresponding to its place No. 13);
- Mind-energy (its region); and
- Prakrtic Ether (its Dental class).
Similarly the letter R represents:
- Buddhi-energy in relation to Ether (corresponding to its place No. 12);
- Mind-energy (its region); and
- Purushic Ether (its Lingual class).
We have observed that a cipher or zero is Purushic energy, and so is a centrosome or Visarga. If this be correct we should get an idea of the nature of Purushic energy from the significance attaching to the letters S and R as here explained; and in the light of this, Purushic energy is conceived to be (a) Heart energy, (b) Buddhi, (c) Mind, (d) Purushic Ether, and (e) Prakrtic Ether. In other words it is conceived as (a) super-electric energy, (b) heat, (c) electric energy, and (d and e) magnetic energy.
It will be noticed that this idea of Purushic energy is identical with that expressed in connection with Anusvara, where it has been observed that the creative union of Purusha and Prakrti takes place when Purushic Ether (magnetic energy or Atom, characterised by elliptical motion) unites with any of the energies enumerated above. Further, it will be of interest to note in this connection that the line of Sattvic or purely Purushic Guna in our diagram extends from a to R that is, from Heart-energy (or Buddhi, its first manifestation) to Prakrtic Ether, including the same five energies. Thus we see that all ideas of the creative energies of life meet from different directions, and form one complete and harmonious whole.
Visarga and Cell Development: The question of Visarga as representing centrosomes in the cell is so important, that it may be examined in some detail in the light of the rules of Sanskrt grammar.
- When a Visarga is preceded by a and followed by a or a soft consonant, it is changed into U which, with the preceding A, becomes O. A represents Buddhi or heat (the first manifestation of Heart-energy) U Purushic Ether; and O water. This rule implies that when the centrosome (Visarga) is surrounded by heat (preceded and followed by A), it is first magnetized (changed to U), and then transformed into a liquid (O).
- Visarga, preceded by A, and followed by any other vowel except A, is dropped. It is also dropped when it is preceded by A and followed by a soft letter, consonant or vowel. We find in the actual development of the cell that the centrosomes (Visarga) appear, disappear and reappear. The disappearance or dropping of the centrosomes is explained by this rule. When the centrosome (Visarga) is acted upon by heat (preceded by a or A), and it then acts, not upon heat, but some other energy of the nucleus or the cytoplasm (followed by any other vowel except A, or a soft consonant), it is seen to disappear.
- S or Visarga, preceded by any vowel except A or A, and followed by a vowel or a soft consonant, is changed to R. It has been pointed out that the centrosomes are to be found at two places, near the nucleus or in the cytoplasm; and the former (near. the Heart) is represented by S (No. 13, Heart-energy), and the latter by R. This rule indicates how a centrosome found near the nucleus may be transformed into the centrosome of the cytoplasm. This change takes place when an energy of the nucleus, other than heat (A or A), acts on the centrosome of the nucleus, and the latter acts on some energy of the nucleus or the cytoplasm (vowel or a soft consonant).
- Visarga followed by C or Ch is changed into by T or Th, into S; and by T or Th into S. This rule explains how a centrosome (Visarga) may be transformed into super-electric energy, or heat, or electric, or magnetic energy, represented by the letters S, S and S.
In this connection it may be mentioned that the letters Ch and Chh belong to the Mind-class (Palatals); T and Th to Purushic Ether (Linguals); and T and Th to Prakrtic Ether (Dentals). This rule implies that when a centrosome (Visarga) acts on (is followed by) an electric energy of the cytoplasm (consonants C or Ch) it is transformed into heat, electric, or magnetic energy (assigned to the Buddhi region, belonging to the Mind-class, and occupying place No. 5, indicative of Ether, in our diagram).
Again, when a centrosome acts on the south seeking magnetic energy of the cytoplasm (T and Th), it is transformed into heat, electric, or south-seeking magnetic energy (represented by the letter S assigned to the Buddhi region, occupying place No. 6, and belonging to Purushic Ether or Lingual class). Further, when a centrosome acts on a north-seeking magnetic energy of the cytoplasm (T and Th), it is changed into super-electric energy, heat, electric, or north seeking magnetic energy (represented by the letter S. occupying place No. 13, assigned to Mind-region, and belonging to Prakrtic Ether or Dental class).
It is possible to pursue this idea further yet, and the statements with regard to the constituents of the cell as represented by vowels, consonants, Anusvara and Visarga, can be examined and verified. Enough, however, has been said to show that there is sufficient material for the conclusion that the Sanskrt language is a deliberate creation of the genius of man, and was intended to be as exact a copy as possible of a great and magnificent scheme of thought; and, while there might easily be a difference of opinion with regard to the adequacy of one explanation or another, it would not be possible to reject the idea of the whole. As we shall see in the following chapters, this theory finds additional support from the method of interpretation adopted from ancient times in regard to the sacred works of the Hindus; and from the Vedas down to the great epic of the Mahabharata, the whole fabric of Hindu thought is found to be reared on this system, where each letter of the alphabet represents an idea or an energy of life, constituting a great and wonderful scheme of thought relating to the origin, manifestation and dissolution of the universe, conceived as Brahmana or else the tiniest cell, with one law pervading the mightiest and the meanest forms of life.
This theory would undoubtedly raise a number of problems not only with regard to Sanskrt, but all languages of the Aryan stock; but its correctness or error must be judged not according to accepted opinion but the character of the sacred works of the Hindus; and if we can explain not only the form and development of the cell, but, at the same time, re-interpret the sacred works as pictures of great schemes of thought in the light of our theory, its correctness would be established beyond all serious doubt. The following pages will show how far our conclusion are justified.